To Repair the volumes and disks via command line there are a few easy to use commands:
Open the Terminal App.

  1. Volumes
    1. Verify volumes
      1. check all volumes: diskutil verifyvolume / 
      2. check a specific volume: diskutil verifyvolume /volumes/[volume name]   example diskutil verifyvolume /volumes/macos
    2. repair disks
      1. repair all volumes: diskutil repairvolume /
      2. repair a specific volume: diskutil repairvolume /volumes/[volume name] example diskutil repairvolume /volumes/macos
  2. Disks
    1. Verify the disks
      1. check all disks: diskutil verifydisk /
      2. check a specific disk: diskutil verifydisk /dev/[disk number] example diskutil verifydisk /dev/disk0
    2. Repair disks
      1. repair all disks: diskutil repairdisk /
      2. repair a specific disk: diskutil repairdisk /dev/[disk number] example diskutil repairdisk /dev/disk0

With these simple commands you can check the health status of your volumes and disks and if needed repair them.
These commands also work in the recovery mode.
But you have to use sudo in front of it to get access to the disks or volumes

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